Posted in Cooking is Fun!

Fluffy Pancakes


  • All purpose flour/Maida – 2 cups
  • Baking Powder – 1 tablespoon
  • salt – a pinch
  • sugar – 1 and 1/2 tablespoon
  • Butter – 2 cubes
  • Milk – 1 cup
  • Egg – 1
  • Oil – for cooking

You can prepare soft, yummy pancakes in just two simple steps:

Combine all the dry ingredients: Flour, Baking Powder, Salt and Sugar. Add melted butter, milk and beaten egg and mix well to form a batter-like consistency.

Heat a oiled pan on medium heat. Ladle out some batter on the pan. Flip the pancake when you see holes forming on the top layer. Cook it until brown on both sides.

Pancakes are traditionally had with Maple syrup drizzled on top.

Posted in Cooking is Fun!

Palak Paneer

This is my version of Palak Paneer that is very easy, quick to prepare and never fails to taste delicious!!


Palak (Spinach) – 100gms

Paneer – 200gms

Butter – 2 tablespoon

Oil – 1 tablespoon

Jeera/Cumin – 1 teaspoon

Garlic (finely chopped) – 1 tablespoon

Onion – 1 large

Red Chilly powder and Salt – as per your taste


Blanch Palak in boiling water for about 5 minutes. Transfer the palak onto a bowl of cold water and let it sit for about a minute or two.

Now blend the palak into a fine paste using a food processor.

Heat some oil and add 2 tablespoons of butter in a pan. We are using some oil along with butter, as the oil stops the butter from burning away. Add cumin seeds followed by finely chopped garlic. Now add finely chopped onions and sauté until it is slightly pink. The slight crunch from the onions adds a unique taste to the dish. Hence, do not wait until it turns golden brown.

It’s now time to add the paste we prepared by blanching the palak.

Add Red chilly powder and salt as per your taste and let it simmer for about 10 minutes. Finally add the king of the dish – the Paneer, cut into cubes. Cook for not more than 5 minutes to prevent the Paneer from becoming rubbery/hard. You can garnish with some fresh cream if your desire. Tastes best with a few drops of lemon juice squeezed on top of it. It goes well as an accompaniment with Chapati/Roti or Nan.

Posted in Docker, Misc, Tech

Docker Compose – Containerizing a Django Application

In the previous blog: Docker – Deep Dive, we created a Dockerfile with a set of instructions, started a service and create a container. Actual Projects are usually much more complex and require more than one services at a time running on multiple containers. Docker Compose handles exactly this.

Docker Compose is a tool to configure and run multiple containers that are inter dependent. It uses a YAML file to configure all the services and you can start/stop all of them with these commands:

Start services: docker-compose -f <filename.yaml> up

Stop services: docker-compose -f <filename.yaml> down

Django Application on Docker

As an example I am trying to run on docker, my Twitter Clone App that is built with Django and uses MySQL as the database:

We will need a Dockerfile and docker-compose.yml file in the project directory.


FROM python:3.7-alpine
RUN apk update && apk add bash
RUN apk add gcc libc-dev linux-headers mariadb-dev
RUN pip install django djangorestframework django-rest-swagger PyJWT==1.7.1 gunicorn mysqlclient
COPY TwitterClone /app/TwitterClone
COPY TUsers /app/TUsers
COPY Tweets /app/Tweets
COPY /app
CMD ["gunicorn","TwitterClone.wsgi","--bind="]
  • In the above file, we are using a pre-built light weight image called alpine for python.
  • It then install all the required packages. Not specifying the version of the package will install the latest available version.
  • Next, all the project files and directories are copied to /app folder on the created container.
  • The current directory is changed to /app.
  • We also expose the port on which the application will run.
  • The last command will start the application.


version: '3.4'

    image: mysql:5.7
      - '3306:3306'
    container_name: twitter_db
    command: --default-authentication-plugin=mysql_native_password
    restart: always
      MYSQL_DATABASE: 'twitterclone'
      MYSQL_USER: 'root'
      MYSQL_PASSWORD: 'guessme'
      MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD: 'guessme'

    container_name: twitterclone
      context: ./
      dockerfile: Dockerfile
    restart: always
      - '8080:8000'
      - .:/code
      - db
  • We have two services, one is the Django App (twitterapp) and the other is the MySQL DB (db). Ensure the names are always in lowercase.
  • The app will be built with the instructions in the Dockerfile.
  • MySQL container will be based on the mysql image available on docker hub. (refer previous blogpost)
  • The “depends_on” clause tells that the application has a dependency on the database.
  • MySQL service takes a while to start. There is usually a lag between the app start and database start time. To ensure a services does not fail if the other has not started yet, “restart: always” is configured.
  • Port forwarding is configured in the “ports:” clause. The host port 8080 is mapped to the container post 8000 on which the application is running. Hence, to access the application from the host system, we will be using port 8080.
  • We will discuss “volumes” in the subsequent section

Next, update in the Django Project with the host, port, login details to match that given in the Docker Compose file:

        'default': {
            'ENGINE': 'django.db.backends.mysql',
            'NAME': 'twitterclone',
            'USER': 'root',
            'PASSWORD': 'guessme',
            'HOST': 'db',
            'PORT': '3306',

When running the application for the first time OR if there are any changes to Django migrations, we need to run this explicitly in order to apply the migrations.

docker exec -it  python migrate

Then, execute the following commands to build and run the docker container:

docker-compose up --build

We are Done!!! The application should now be running on localhost:8080.

The complete code is here:

Docker Volumes

Docker volumes are used for data persistence. When a container is stopped and re-run, the database starts all over again and the data stored previously is lost. To make it available even after the container is re-run, Docker volumes are made use of.

Here’s how it works. A directory from the host file system is mapped to a directory of the container file system. So, each time a container is started, the data is replicated into the host directory and when the container is restarted, it gets the data automatically from the directory in the host system.

Docker volumes can be created using the ‘docker run’ command. It can also be configured in the Docker Compose file.

There are 3 different types of docker volumes:

  • Host volume: User specifies the host directory where the data is to be replicated.
docker run -v /home/user/dockerdata:/var/lib/mysql/data
  • Anonymous volume: User does not specify the host directory. It is automatically taken care of, by docker. Only the directory on the container is specified.
docker run -v /var/lib/mysql/data
  • Named volume: User specifies a name but not the path. Path is handled by docker. You can reference the volume by the given name This type is most frequently used.
docker run -v name:/var/lib/mysql/data


In this blogpost series, we have leant the basics required to understand and use Docker. We have seen the Evolution of Docker, the need for docker and also how to setup and run an application on docker. We leant about Docker Compose and Docker Volumes too, in this post. Here are the links to previous posts:

Docker – Introduction

Docker – Deep Dive

Github link to the project discussed in this blog:

You can also refer the official documentation page for more information and updates:

Posted in Docker, Misc, Tech

Docker – Deep Dive

Docker – Introduction covered the evolution, the need for Docker and the reason why it is widely used. This post will be a deep dive into the concepts of Docker and it’s practical use cases.

This post covers everything required to create an image and run an application using docker. The OS I have chosen Windows for all the examples, mainly because it is quite challenging. Working with docker on Windows is not as seamless as it is on Linux/Unix OS. Hence I have included a lot of workaround hoping it will be of help those using Windows.


You can install from the above link by following a few simple instructions. Once done, add the following to the “PATH” variable. You can verify if it works, with “docker –version” command.

C:\Program Files\Docker\Docker\resources\bin C:\ProgramData\DockerDesktop\version-bin

Let us begin

Now, we will create a simple python program that prints “hello world” and name it

print('Hello World!!!')


Dockerfile is a text document that contains all the instructions required to build an image. It should be named exactly as “Dockerfile” and placed inside the application folder. Most commonly used commands in a dockerfile are:

FROM python
ENV <> 
RUN <>
CMD <>
  • Dockerfile always starts with a FROM command that specifies the pre-existing image (present on dockerhub) to import from.
  • ENV is for setting environment variables in the container. This is optional and usually moved to the Docker compose file
  • RUN to execute linux commands
  • COPY – executes on the host. Can copy files from the host to the container.
  • CMD – is the entry point command for the application execution
  • WORKDIR – points to the directory in the container, where the application code exists.

Create a “Dockerfile” with these three lines:

FROM python:3.7-alpine
CMD ["python",""]
  • The first line will set up the environment by installing python. 3.7-alpine which refers to the already available Image on docker hub. You can find more such Images on This step takes time when the container is built for the first time as the installations happen. Subsequently, it should take lesser time.
  • The next lines copies the contents of the local file onto the file on the newly created Image. Here the file name is, but the name can be anything.
  • The third line specifies the Command that is to be run on the Container to execute the program in the file, just copied.

Now, run the following commands to first build the image and then create a container. Replace <sample-image> with a name of your own. You should now see “Hello World!!!” printed on the console.

docker build -t <sample-image> .
docker run <sample-image>

Working with Environment variables

We previously saw how to execute a simple print statement on a docker container. Let’s now see a little more complex example where we pass an environment variable from local as an argument while building the container. This will set the environment variable in the container image. We will verify the same by printing the environment variable in the container.

import os
def main():


FROM python:3.7-alpine
ENV testenv=$x
CMD ["python",""]

Let us set an environment variable in our local machine. Command for windows:

D:\Projects\DockerSample>set whatdoing="docker"
D:\Projects\DockerSample>echo %whatdoing%

Here’s how we run the build command by passing an argument:

docker build --build-arg x=%whatdoing% -t sample-image .
docker run sample-image

The above should print “docker”. %whatdoing% is an env variable in the local machine. In the Dockerfile, we receive an argument “ARG x” and set the same as the value for the environment variable “testenv”. Our python program “” is fetching the environment variable “testenv” and prints the value of the same.

Hence, we can not only install various packages onto the docker container but also set all the required environment variables before-hand, in order to run an application on the newly created container.

Frequently used

Here are some frequently used commands that can come handy while working with docker images and containers:

- Get an image from Docker hub: (Example - redis)
docker pull <name> 

- List all the images:
docker images

- List only image IDs:
docker images -q 
(q stands for quiet. Suppresses other columns)

- Create a container of a given image:
docker run <image>

- Run a container in detached mode:
docker run -d <image>

- Remove a docker image by ID
docker rmi <Image ID>

- List the docker containers in running state: (PS - Process State)
docker ps

- List all containers irrespective of their state:
docker ps -a

- Restart a container:
docker stop <container-id>
docker start <container-id> 

- Bind a port of your host to a port of the container while creating a container:
docker run -p <host-port>:<container-port> <image>

- View container logs: (you can also stream the logs using -f option)
docker logs <container-id/name> -f

- Specify a name for the container:
docker run --name inamedthis <image>

- Get the terminal of the running container:
docker exec -it <container-id/name> /bin/bash

- List the current networks:
docker network ls

- Create a new docker network:
docker network create <name>

Cleaning container images:

Here’s an important workaround while working with Windows. Time and again, I ran into issues with the container not reflecting the current state. This was due to old containers not being stopped and removed correctly before creating new ones when they had the same name. Here’s a batch file that clears old containers:

FOR /f "tokens=*" %%i IN ('docker ps -aq') DO docker stop %%i
FOR /f "tokens=*" %%i IN ('docker ps -aq') DO docker rm %%i 

You can put the above in a file and add to the path variable so that you can use it whenever you are creating/debugging containers multiple times.

In the next post we will see how we can run multiple services on docker using Docker Compose and also host an application on docker.

Posted in Cooking is Fun!

Chocolate Cake and Ganache

Here’s what you will need to prepare a delicious moist chocolate cake.

Dry Ingredients:

All purpose flour/Maida – 100grams

Cocoa powder – 30grams

Baking powder – 1 and 1/2 tablespoon

Baking soda – 1/4 teaspoon

salt – a pinch

Sugar – 90grams

Wet ingredients:

Eggs – 5

Oil – 1cup

Milk – 1/4 cup

vanilla essence – 1/2 teaspoon

For the chocolate ganache:

Fresh cream

Dark Chocolate


  • Pass all the dry ingredients (Flour, Cocoa powder, Baking Powder, Baking soda and Salt) through a sieve and mix them together.
  • Whisk the eggs well and add sugar followed by Oil, Milk and vanilla essence and mix well.
  • Add the dry ingredients into the above wet ingredients in 3 batches and fold it in. Make a smooth homogenous mixture
  • Smear a baking tray with Butter/Oil. You can optionally use a butter paper.
  • Add the above mixture to the baking tray.
  • Pre-heat the microwave. Place the tray and bake at 180 degree centigrade for 25 min and your cake is ready.

Chocolate Ganache

For chocolate ganache we will need Dark chocolate and Fresh Cream. The ratio will be 2 parts chocolate and 1 part fresh cream. We will need a double boiler, that is, a heat resistant bowl to melt the chocolate and an outer vessel to hold boiling water.

First, we will bring the water to boil. Place the heat resistant bowl and add dark chocolate pieces. Keep stirring until the chocolate melts.

Stop the heating process. Add fresh cream and continue stirring.

Let it cool. Spread on the cake evenly.

To Decorating the cake you will need whipped cream and icing sugar. Whip the cream until it is frothy. Add icing sugar in parts and continue whipping until a thick consistency is acquired. Decorate the cake as required. Enjoy your moist chocolate cake…

Wish you a very Happy New Year!!!

Posted in Python, Tech

Django Custom Middleware

A Custom middleware can validate each http request for the set of instructions given in the middleware, before sending back a response. Let us see how we can write a custom Middleware. As an example, we will be implementing a custom Authentication Middleware here.

Django’s out-of-the box Authentication middleware only authenticates requests if the project has made use of the Django provided “User” model or has extended the same. If we have otherwise implemented a model from scratch for the user data, we will have to write a custom middleware for authentication and authorization.

I am implementing this in my twitter clone project, where I have used a custom model for user data. The details of the project can be found in my previous blogpost: Building a Twitter Clone with Django REST Framework – I

First, we will create a file in TUser App. We will call it To start off, there are a few basic rules to be followed while defining a Middleware are:

  1. The custom middleware must accept a get_response argument while defining the __init__ method. This is called only once when the web server starts.
  2. Define the __call__() method. This is called each time a request is made.
  3. Include the path of the above file in – in the “Middleware” section

This is how a sample middleware is defined:
from django.contrib.auth.backends import BaseBackend

class AuthMiddleware(BaseBackend):
    def __init__(self, get_response):
        self.get_response = get_response
    def __call__(self, request):
        return self.get_response(request)
    def CustomMiddleware(self,requst):
        #Steps to perform
        return True
    #custom middlewares:

Here’s my version of Custom Authentication Middleware –

class AuthMiddleware(BaseBackend):
    def __init__(self, get_response):
        self.get_response = get_response
    def __call__(self, request):
        return self.get_response(request)
    def auth(self,request):
        exclusion_list = ['/signup','/login']
        if request.path not in exclusion_list:
                urlstr = request.path
                user = urlstr.split('/')[1]
                token = request.session.get('authtoken').get('token')
                payload = jwt.decode(token,settings.AUTH_TOKEN)
                userObj = TUser.objects.get(username=user)
                if payload.get('username') == userObj.username:
                    return True
                    raise PermissionDenied
            except (jwt.ExpiredSignature, jwt.DecodeError, jwt.InvalidTokenError) as e:
                error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN,
                                'Error_Message': "Token is Invalid/Expired"}
                raise PermissionDenied(error)
            except Exception as e:
                error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN,
                                'Error_Message': "Invalid User"}
                raise PermissionDenied(error) 
            return True

This middleware will automatically validates each and every request made. In this project, the validation is performed to check if the token that a user obtains while Login is valid. If yes, the API end-point performs its action and returns the intended response. If not, an exception is raised and the access to the API is forbidden.

The complete file is available on github:

You can find the complete project code here:

Posted in Python, Tech

Building a Twitter Clone with Django REST Framework – III

Previous posts:

Building a Twitter Clone with Django REST Framework – I

Building a Twitter Clone with Django REST Framework – II

In this post, let’s put some of the APIs to use:

  • Create a new user using the ‘signup’ API end point
  • Login to the application
  • Login with wrong credentials
  • Get all the followers
  • Creating a tweet:
  • Get the user’s Paginated timeline
  • Like a tweet:
  • Search for a tweet:
Posted in Python, Tech

Building a Twitter Clone with Django REST Framework – II

Previous post: Building a Twitter Clone with Django REST Framework – I

User Authentication

We will perform Authentication using JWT or JSON Web Token. JWT is a secret token that is generated and sent to the browser when a user successfully logs in with his credentials. Subsequently, whenever the user accesses any link, the token is sent back to the server in the request header. The server checks for the validity of the token before granting access.

User ————-> Login Successful ——————————–> Server: Generates JWT

User <————- Returns JWT to browser ——————– Server

User ————-> Sends JWT in request header ————> Server validates JWT signature

User <————- Access Granted ——————————– Server sends Response

We will be using Python’s JWT Module – PyJWT here. I did try out Django Rest Framework’s JWT, but I found it hard to get it working with little/unclear documentation. Also, the process of token generation and encryption is better understandable using PyJWT. It is also very flexible for customization. To install:

pip install PyJWT

import uuid

AUTH_TOKEN = uuid.uuid4().hex.upper()

Let’s write the views for Authentication:

import jwt
#set Expiration time for the token. Best practise is to set it less than 10 minutes
EXP_TIME = datetime.timedelta(minutes=5)

def GetToken(username):
    Purpose: Get Access token
    username (mandatory) <str> Account user 
    password (mandatory) <str> Password
    Output: Token that expires in 60 minutes
        user = TUser.objects.get(username=username)
        if user:
                payload = {'id','username':user.username,'exp':datetime.datetime.utcnow()+EXP_TIME}
                token = {'token':jwt.encode(payload,settings.AUTH_TOKEN).decode('utf8')}
                                # jwt.encode({'exp': datetime.utcnow()}, 'secret')
                return token
            except Exception as e:
                error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
                        'Error_Message': "Error generating Auth Token"}
                return Response(error, status=status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN)
            error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
                        'Error_Message': "Invalid Username or Password"}
            return Response(error, status=status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN)
    except Exception as e:
        error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
                        'Error_Message': "Internal Server Error"}
        return Response(error,status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST) 

def Auth(request,username):
    Purpose: Login to the Application
    token (mandatory) <str> user token 
    Output: User object of the logged in user
        token = request.session.get('authtoken').get('token')
        payload = jwt.decode(token,settings.AUTH_TOKEN)
        user = TUser.objects.get(username=username)
        if payload.get('username') == user.username:
            serializer = TUserSerializer(user)
            return Response(, status=status.HTTP_200_OK)
            error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN,
                        'Error_Message': "Invalid User"}
            return Response(error,status=status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN) 
    except (jwt.ExpiredSignature, jwt.DecodeError, jwt.InvalidTokenError) as e:
        error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN,
                        'Error_Message': "Token is Invalid/Expired"}
        return Response(error,status=status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN) 
    except Exception as e:
        error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN,
                        'Error_Message': "Internal Server Error"}
        return Response(error,status=status.HTTP_403_FORBIDDEN) 

def Login(request,username=None,password=None):
    Authenticate if username and password is correct. 
    Output: return User object or Error 
    username = request.query_params.get('username')
    password = request.query_params.get('password')
        user = TUser.objects.get(username=username)
        if user.password == password:
            token = GetToken(username)
            user.token = token['token']
            request.session['authtoken'] = token
            serializer = TUserSerializer(user)
            return Response(, status=status.HTTP_200_OK)
            error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
                        'Error_Message': "Invalid Username or Password"}
            return Response(error,status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST) 
    except Exception as e:
        error = {'Error_code': status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST,
                        'Error_Message': "Invalid Username"}
        return Response(error,status=status.HTTP_400_BAD_REQUEST)

App Users – REST APIs

from django.urls import path
from . import views

urlpatterns = [
    path('signup', views.AccountSignup),
    path('login', views.Login),
    path('<str:username>/account', views.AccountUpdate),
    path('token', views.GetToken),
    path('auth', views.Auth),
    path('<str:loggedin_user>/<str:user>/follow', views.FollowUser),
    path('<str:username>/followers', views.GetFollowers),
    path('<str:username>/following', views.GetFollowing),
    path('<str:username>/block', views.Block_user), 
    path('users',views.users), #debugging
] :

from rest_framework import serializers
from TUsers.models import TUser

class TUserSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = TUser
        fields = '__all__' : This file content is too large to be placed here and is far more readable on Github. Link:

App Tweets – REST APIs

from django.urls import path
from . import views

urlpatterns = [
    path('create', views.CreateTweet),
    path('<str:username>/', views.Timeline), 
    path('<int:tweet_id>/delete', views.DeleteTweet),
    path('<int:tweet_id>', views.ShowTweet), 
    path('<int:tweet_id>/reply', views.Reply),
    path('<int:tweet_id>/retweet', views.Retweet),
    path('<int:tweet_id>/like', views.Like),
    path('search', views.Search),
    path('all_tweets', views.all_tweets), #debugging

from rest_framework import serializers
from Tweets.models import TCtweets
from django import forms

class TCtweetsSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = TCtweets
        fields = '__all__'

class TCValidator(forms.Form) :
    username = forms.CharField()
    tweet_text = forms.CharField()

class ReplyValidator(forms.Form):
    username = forms.CharField()
    reply_text = forms.CharField()   

class RetweetValidator(forms.Form):
    username = forms.CharField()

The complete code for this project can be found in my GitHub repository:

In the next post, we will use some of these API end-points and see how they work.

Next post: Building a Twitter Clone with Django REST Framework – III

Posted in Python, Tech

Building a Twitter Clone with Django REST Framework – I

In this blog-series, I will be sharing my experience building an App with features similar to Twitter, using Django REST.

  • There will be a code snippet for each step. You can find the entire code on GitHub too:
  • The approach I have taken is TDD – Test Driven Development. There will be a test case for each functionality, followed by the development of that feature.

Setting up the Django Environment

conda create env --name django_env
conda activate django_env

For Django REST Framework:

pip install djangorestframework

# Add to

Let’s begin the Django Project

#To start a Django Project:
django-admin startproject TwitterClone

#Start the Apps:
python startapp TUsers
python startapp Tweets

#Add the two Apps to

Writing Test Cases:

  • Create a tests folder inside the App as shown below.
  • This has to be made into a package by creating a ‘’.
  • All the files in the package should begin with a test_<>
  • We will be writing test cases that initially fail and then coding the functionality, with the final goal of passing the test cases. and

from django.test import TestCase
from TUsers.models import TUser

class TUserTestCase(TestCase):
    def setUp(self):      
    def test_create(self):
from django.test import TestCase
from Tweets.models import TCtweets
from TUsers.models import TUser

class TweetsTestCase(TestCase):
    def setUp(self):
        user1 = TUser.objects.create(username="lori",password="sharktank",country="USA")
        TCtweets.objects.create(username=user1,tweet_text="Hi there!")
    def test_create_tweet(self):
        user1 = TUser.objects.get(username='lori')
        self.assertEqual("Hi there!",TCtweets.objects.get(username=user1).tweet_text)

Adding the models:

TUser/ and Tweets/

from django.db import models
from datetime import datetime

get_cur_time ='%m/%d/%Y %I:%M:%S %p')

class TUser(models.Model):
    username = models.CharField(max_length=100,unique=True)
    password = models.CharField(max_length=100)
    country = models.CharField(max_length=100,null=True)
    modified_time = models.CharField(max_length=50,default=get_cur_time)
    following = models.ManyToManyField('self',related_name='followers',symmetrical=False,blank=True)
    blocked = models.BooleanField(default=False)
    token = models.CharField(max_length=10000,null=True)
from django.db import models
from TUsers.models import TUser
from datetime import datetime

get_cur_time ='%m/%d/%Y %I:%M:%S %p')

class TCtweets(models.Model):
    username = models.ForeignKey(TUser,on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    tweet_text = models.CharField(max_length=100,null=True)
    time = models.CharField(max_length=50,default=get_cur_time)
    retweet = models.ManyToManyField(TUser,related_name="retweeted_users")
    like = models.ManyToManyField(TUser,related_name="liked_users")
    reply = models.ManyToManyField("self")     
    comment = models.CharField(max_length=100,null=True)


Let us set up Swagger for API documentation:

pip install django-rest-swagger

#Add to

#Add the following to
from rest_framework_swagger.views import get_swagger_view

schema_view = get_swagger_view(title='Twitter Clone API')

urlpatterns = [

If you are using Django 3.x, (which is my case here) there are a few things to be done in order to make Swagger work:

  • Enable CoreAPI Schema: Django Rest Framework 3.x deprecated the CoreAPI based schema generation and introduced the OpenAPI schema generation in its place. Currently to continue to use django-rest-swagger we need to re-enable the CoreAPI schema. To add:
{'DEFAULT_SCHEMA_CLASS': 'rest_framework.schemas.coreapi.AutoSchema' }
  • Change the swagger index.file: {% load staticfiles %} has been deprecated in django 2.x and removed in 3.x. Modify the same in index.html file of swagger in the location: …/Anaconda\envs\dj\Lib\site-packages\rest_framework_swagger\templates\rest_framework_swagger
{% load static %}  #Remove {% load staticfiles %}
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">

And finally, you are done. You should see the Swagger API page.

Test Case for APIs

Too test the login API, first let’s write the test case and then build the code for the same. Here’s a sample:

   def test_api_login(self):
        client = Client()
        response ='/login/', 

In the next blogpost, we will see how to build the REST APIs.

You can find the project code on GitHub: